Spanish Reales Money Symbol

  1. Spanish Reale Mint Marks
  2. Spanish Reale Price Guide
  3. Spanish 8 Reales Coins

In addition, you can tell the denomination of the coin by the 'R' marking: R = 1/2 real, 1R = 1 real, 2R = 2 reales, 4R, and 8R. These old reales denominations are those that lead directly to American denominations of nickel (1/2 real), dime, quarter (2 reales), half, and dollar (8 reales) today. Real (1497-1833) 1 Real = 4 Cuartillos = 34 Maravedis 1 Maravedi = 2 Blancas 1 Escudo = 16 Reales 1 Excelente = 375 Maravedis Blanca - Fernando and Isabel.

Spain Spanish Colonial 1/2, 1, 2, 4, and 8 Reales (Carolus III and IIII) (Fakes are possible) 1772 to 1808

These coins are known as Spanish (Hispan) colonial coinage because they circulated freely in the many New World colonies of Spain. You can find essentially the same coins in Bolivia, Chile, Columbia, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru. The coins from Mexico carry the distinctive Mo or oM mint mark -- a small 'o' set over a large 'M'. Coins from Chile bear an So or oS mint mark for Santiago, Chile. There are many other mint marks, as explained below.
These are wonderful collectibles, and some collectors specialize in Spanish Colonial coinage. It is a fascinating subject. Similar coins, with the likeness of King Ferdinand VII, appear on this CoinQuest page. You must also be on the lookout for fakes, and shown on this CoinQuest page and at the bottom of this page.
We have a comprehensive page devoted to Spanish colonial coins. See this page [PRESS HERE].
There are many numismatic (coin collector) twists and turns with these coins. If you have a nice-looking example, use this page for a quick check, but be sure to seek out a full coin catalog and a professional numismatist or a knowledgeable collector for final evaluation.
King Charles (Carolus) of Spain shows on the front of the coins covered on this page. Carolus III reigned from 1759 to 1788, and Carolus IIII (or IV) reigned from 1788 to 1808. The backs of these coins look the same, with a crowned shield and two large pillars on either side.
The first step in evaluating these coins is to determine their country of origin. See details to the right.
In addition, you can tell the denomination of the coin by the 'R' marking: R = 1/2 real, 1R = 1 real, 2R = 2 reales, 4R, and 8R. These old reales denominations are those that lead directly to American denominations of nickel (1/2 real), dime, quarter (2 reales), half, and dollar (8 reales) today. Gold coins with similar designs are called escudos (click here for escudos).
Special lettered marks are known as Assayers Initials. Typically these are two letter sets such as FM, MF, FT, and TH.
To evaluate your coin, look first at the general values below. If your coin is 'normal' and has a common date, mint mark, and assayer initials then the GENERAL VALUES apply. Coins with SPECIAL VALUES are shown below the general listings.
All listings give very approximate catalog values for coins that worn, but free of problems such as scratches, stains, spots, gouges, cleanings, scrapes, scuffs, and the like. Use our Important Terminology page to convert these catalog values to actual buy and sell values.
1/2 REAL CAROLUS III GENERAL VALUES (18 mm diameter)
worn: $10 US dollars approximate catalog value
average circulated: $70
well preserved: $15
1 REAL CAROLUS III GENERAL VALUES (20 mm diameter)
worn: $20 US dollars approximate catalog value
average circulated: $60
well preserved: $100
2 REALES CAROLUS III GENERAL VALUES (25 mm diameter)
worn: $25 US dollars approximate catalog value
average circulated: $75
well preserved: $135
4 REALES CAROLUS III GENERAL VALUES (33 mm diameter)
worn: $80 US dollars approximate catalog value
average circulated: $220
well preserved: $500
8 REALES CAROLUS III GENERAL VALUES (38 mm diameter)
worn: $100 US dollars approximate catalog value
average circulated: $200
well preserved: $300
1/2 REAL CAROLUS IIII GENERAL VALUES (18 mm diameter)
worn: $10 US dollars approximate catalog value
average circulated: $50
well preserved: $90
1 REAL CAROLUS IIII GENERAL VALUES (20 mm diameter)
worn: $15 US dollars approximate catalog value
average circulated: $50
well preserved: $90
2 REALES CAROLUS IIII GENERAL VALUES (25 mm diameter)
worn: $25 US dollars approximate catalog value
average circulated: $70
well preserved: $120
4 REALES CAROLUS IIII GENERAL VALUES (33 mm diameter)
worn: $60 US dollars approximate catalog value
average circulated: $160
well preserved: $450
8 REALES CAROLUS IIII GENERAL VALUES (38 mm diameter)
worn: $60 US dollars approximate catalog value
average circulated: $130
well preserved: $200
SPECIAL VALUES depend on the country of origin. You must find the mint mark to determine the country of origin (see table above). The values called out below are for coins in average circulated condition.
1/2 REAL SPECIAL VALUES
Bolivia 1778PR with no 'A' in 'CAROLUS': $500
Chile 1773DA: $200
Colombia all dates 1772 to 1773: $5000
Colombia all dates 1775 to 1784: $5000
Guatemala 1799M: $300
Guatemala 1808M: $150
Mexico 1773 with CAROLUS spelled CAROLS: $250
1 REAL SPECIAL VALUES
Chile 1803FJ: $150
Colombia all dates and conditions before 1816: about twice general values
Guatemala 1779P: $200
Mexico 1788FF: $200
2 REALES SPECIAL VALUES
Bolivia 1825J: $250
Colombia 1772VJ: $800
Colombia 1784JJ: $800
Colombia 1814JF: $400
Mexico 1784FM: $300
Mexico 1784FF with DEI GRATIA spelled DEI GRTIA: $200
Mexico 1786FF: $500
Peru 1772JM: $250
Peru 1774JM: $500
4 REALES SPECIAL VALUES
Bolivia 1788JR with REX spelled NEX: $700
Bolivia 1789PR: $500
Bolivia 1809PJ: $300
Chile all dates and conditions before 1800: about twice general values
Guatemala 1808M: $650
Mexico 1784FM: $350
Mexico 1785FM: $350
Mexico 1796FM: $400
Mexico 1802FT: $500
Mexico 1803FM: $500
Peru 1752J: $650
Peru 1753J: $500
Peru 1763JM: $500
8 REALES SPECIAL VALUES
Bolivia 1789PR: $400
Chile all dates 1773 to 1783: $4000
Chile all dates 1784 to 1792: $1500
Chile 1800AJ with no 'A' in 'CAROLUS': $5000
Guatemala 1773P: $1200
Guatemala 1776P: $2500
Guatemala 1780P: $1200
Guatemala 1781P: $900
Guatemala 1782P: $1800
Guatemala 1783P: $1000
Guatemala 1786M: $1000
Guatemala 1790M: $1200
Mexico 1772MF: $700
Mexico 1783FM: $7000
Mexico 1784FF: $500
In the bluish toned example sent to CoinQuest by a fellow named Ron, you can see several chop marks on the front of the coin. These marks were likely struck into the coin by a merchant in New York or San Francisco to indicate that the coin is a good one, not a fake. I personally like chop marks and will pay a small premium for them. To me they add interest to an already intereting coin. Many collectors, however, feel chops degrade the coin.
Use our Important Terminology page to correctly interpret the values shown here.
Finally, valuable coins are always subject to counterfeit. These coins are no exception. The image below shows a side-by-side comparison of real and fake 1776 8 reales. Several discrepancies are readily visible. Not all counterfeits are so obvious.

Coin: 2334, Genre: Colonizers and Colonies, Timeline: World
Created (yyyymm): 200911, Last review: 201910
Appearance: Normal round coin Metallic gray Letters: Latin
Years: sort: 1772, filter: 1772 to 1808
Image: mexico_8_reales_1806.jpg
Original inquiry: charles 111 1111 reales iii iiii rex ind carolus charles hispan mo plus ultra mexico bolivia guatemala colombia chile peru castle column pillar crown tiara lion tiger arms shield crest
Copyright 2009 to 2020 CoinQuest.com, all rights reserved.
Silver 8-real coin of 1768 from the Potosí mint.

The real (English: /ɹeɪˈɑl/ Spanish: /reˈal/) (meaning: 'royal', plural: reales) was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries after the mid-14th century.[1] It underwent several changes in value relative to other units throughout its lifetime until it was replaced by the peseta in 1868. The most common denomination for the currency was the silver eight-realSpanish dollar (Real de a 8) or peso which was used throughout Europe, America and Asia during the height of the Spanish Empire.

History[edit]

In Spain and Spanish America[edit]

Silver real coined in Seville during the reign of Peter I of Castile (1350–1369).
Spanish 1799 silver 8 reales, Charles IV (reverse)

The first real was introduced by King Pedro I of Castile in the mid 14th century, with 66 minted from a Castilian mark of silver (230.0465 grams), fineness 134144 or 0.9306, and valued of 3 maravedíes. It co-circulated with various other silver coins until a 1497 ordinance eliminated all other coins and retained the real (now minted 67 to a mark of silver, 0.9306 fine, fine silver 3.195 grams) subdivided into 34 maravedíes.[2]

The silver real was minted in 12-, 1-, 2-, 4- and 8-real denominations. After the discovery of silver in Mexico, Peru and Bolivia in the 16th century, the 8-real coin (referred to since then as a dollar, a peso or a piece of eight) became an internationally recognized trade coin in Europe, Asia and North America. These reales were supplemented by the gold escudo, minted 68 to a mark of 1112 fine gold (3.101 g fine gold), and valued at 15–16 silver reales or approximately two dollars.

This real worth 18 dollar was retained in Latin America until the 19th century but was altered considerably in peninsular Spain starting in the 17th century. This Spanish colonial real was subsequently referred to as moneda nacional (national money) and underwent two more alterations, namely:

  • 1728: 68 reales (or 8+12 dollars) minted to a mark, 1112 or 0.9167 fine (3.101 g fine silver)
  • 1772: 8+12 dollars minted to a mark, 130144 or 0.9028 fine (3.054 g fine silver)

In Spain – 17th and 18th centuries[edit]

The various financial crises under King Philip II gave rise starting in 1600 to the real de vellón (made of billon, or less than half silver). The relative autonomy of Spain's constituent kingdoms resulted in reales of varying silver content and worth considerably less the real nacional worth 18 of a dollar. The monetary confusion would not be resolved until the real de vellón was fixed at 20 reales to the dollar in 1737.[3]

The first ordinance officially devaluing the Spanish non-colonial real came out in 1642, with the real provincial debased from 67 to 83+34 to a mark of silver (hence, 10 reales to the dollar). Actual coins worth 12, 1, 2, 4 and 8 reales provincial (the latter worth 45 of a dollar and called peso maria) were minted in 1686 and were poorly received by the public.[4]

The same 1686 recoinage came with edicts in 1686–1687 fixing the real de vellón at one dollar = 15+234 reales or 512 maravedíes (or 1 dollar = 8 reales nacionales worth 64 maravedíes). The ineffectiveness of these edicts meant that existing reales de vellón were worth even less than 1/15234 of a dollar (0.0664 dollars).

The confusion to the monetary situation would not be resolved until 1737 in various stages, namely:

Spanish Reale Mint Marks

  • The dollar of 8 reales nacionales reduced in 1728 to 8+12 dollars to a mark, 1112 or 0.9167 fine (24.809 g fine silver)
  • Real nacional coins were reintroduced in 8-real and 4-real denominations worth 1 dollar and 12 dollar, respectively.
  • Real provincial coins were limited to 2-, 1- and 12-real denominations worth 15, 110 and 120 dollar, respectively.
  • The Real de vellón was finally fixed in 1737 at 120 dollar and equal to 34 maravedíes (hence 1 dollar = 20 reales = 680 maravedíes), and
  • The Peso de cambio of 512 maravedíes as introduced in 1686 continued to be used as an accounting unit but worth a reduced value of 512680 dollar (approximately 34 of a dollar). This was divided into eight reales de cambio each of 64 maravedíes.
Spanish Reales Money Symbol

Subsequent changes until the end of the 18th century were minor and involved reducing the fineness of the silver dollar to 130144 = 0.9028 fine and the gold escudo (now worth 2 dollars or 40 reales de vellón) from 0.917 to 0.875 fine. Starting 1810 silver coin denominations were revised to their more common-sense values in reales de vellón: 20, 10, 4, 2 and 1 real with 1 real = 120 dollar.

In Spain – 19th century[edit]

1 real coin, Spain, 1852, Isabella II. Silver 900.

The loss of American possessions in the first third of the 19th century cut off the inflow of precious metals into Spain and resulted in the gradual use of French coinage in local circulation. These subsequent changes to the Spanish currency system were never carried out in full:

  • The first decimal currency of 1850, with the real de vellón worth 120 dollar, 10 décimas or 100 céntimos, and with maravedíes discontinued.
  • The second decimal currency of 1864, with a new silver escudo worth 12 dollar, 10 reales de vellón or 100 céntimos de escudo (not equivalent to the gold escudo).

The real was only retired completely with the introduction in 1868 of the Spanish peseta, at par with the French franc, and at the rate of 1 dollar = 20 reales = 5 pesetas. Consequently, the term real lived on, meaning a quarter of a dollar (25 céntimos de peseta).

Coins[edit]

Relative sizes of Castilian silver coins, from 14 to 8 reales, according to a 1657 document.

Coins were minted in both Spain and Latin America from the 16th to 19th centuries in silver 12, 1, 2, 4 and 8 reales nacional and in gold 12, 1, 2, 4 and 8 escudos. The silver 8-real coin was known as the Spanish dollar (as the coin was minted to the specifications of the thaler of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg monarchy), peso, or the famous piece of eight. Spanish dollars minted between 1732 and 1773 are also often referred to as columnarios. The portrait variety from 1772 and later are typically referred to as Spanish dollars or pillar dollars.

Coins were minted in Spain in copper 1, 2, 4 and 8 maravedíes, in silver coins equivalent to 1, 2, 4, 10 and 20 reales de vellón since 1737, and in gold coins equivalent to 12, 1, 2, 4 and 8 escudos. New coins introduced after the 1850 decimalization include copper 5, 10 and 25 céntimos de real was well as a new gold 100-real (5-dollar) coin.

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Real español.

References[edit]

  1. ^Martínez, Mary (10 February 2017). 'Spanish influence on American Currencies'. Kind-le. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  2. ^Shaw, William Arthur (1896). The History of Currency, 1252–1894; Appendix III: Spain. Putnam. p. 319.
  3. ^Sumner, W. G. (1898). 'The Spanish Dollar and the Colonial Shilling'. The American Historical Review. 3 (4): 607–619. doi:10.2307/1834139. JSTOR1834139.
  4. ^'8 Reales'.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Krause, Chester L.; Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991 (18th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN0873411501.

External links[edit]

Spanish Reale Price Guide

  • Coins from Guadalajara, Jalisco. Mexico (1812–2006) (gdlcoins.com)
  • The Colonial Coinage of Spanish America: An introduction by Daniel Frank Sedwick

Spanish 8 Reales Coins

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